Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Friendship Expressions



Make friends

We make friends when we become friendly with new people.

She made friends easily at her new school.

We became friends after meeting at a party.

Hit it off

When you hit it off with someone you have a good friendly relationship. It is used to describe meeting someone for the first time.

We hit it off straight away.

I went on a date with Frank's brother last night but we didn't hit it off. I don't think we will go out again.

Get along/get on

You have a good relationship when you get along with someone.

Do you get on with her?

I get along with Hannah really well.

He doesn't get on with his sister.

Click

You click with someone you quickly become friendly with.

We just clicked immediately – we have so many things in common.


Friday, July 17, 2015

Essential American Slang Words for English Learners

Awesome (adj) is such a popular slang word in English all over the world and you’ll hear everyone from the young to old saying it. When you use the word awesome, you’re expressing that you think something is wonderful or amazing. It can be used in a sentence or it could be used in a one word reply.

Example 1

“What did you think of Wolf on Wall Street?”

“It was awesome! I loved it!” (They thought it was a great movie).

Example 2

“I’ll pick you up at 1 pm, okay?”

“Awesome.” (Here it shows you’re cool with the idea and you agree).

Example 3

“My friend Dave is an awesome single guy. You guys would be perfect for each other!”

“Really? I’d love to meet him.”



Cool (adj) like awesome means ‘great’ or ‘fantastic’. It also shows that you’re okay with an idea. Be careful the normal meaning of cool means a little cold so you have to listen to it in context to understand what’s being said.    

Example 1)

“How’s the weather in Canada these days?”

“It’s getting cooler. Winter’s coming!” (This is the literal meaning a little cold)

Example 2

“What did you think of my new boyfriend?”

“I liked him. He seemed like a cool guy!” (He seemed like a nice guy).

Example 3

“I’m throwing a party next week for my birthday. Do you want to come?”

“Cool! Sure, I’d love to!”



To be beat (adj) In normal terms ‘beat’ would be used meaning ‘to win’ Manchester United beat Liverpool, or ‘to hit’ Marko, stop beating your brother, however, in slang or everyday English it means something completely different. If you hear your friend saying I’m beat, it means he or she is very tired or exhausted.    

Example 1

“Do you want to go out tonight? There’s a cool new rock bar that’s just opened.”

“Sorry, I can’t. I’m beat and I have to wake up early tomorrow.”

Example 2

“You look beat, what have you been doing?”

“I’ve been helping my dad in the yard all morning.”

To hang out (verb) If someone asks you where you usually hang out, they want to know in which place you prefer to be when you have free time. And if your friend asks you if you want to hang out with them, they’re asking you if you’re free and want to spend some time together. And what about if you ask your friend what they’re doing and they just answer hanging out? It means that they are free and not doing anything special.  

 Example 1

“Hey, it’s great to see you again.”

“And you. We must hang out sometime.”

“I would love that. I’ll call you soon.”

Example 2

“Paulo, where do you usually hang out on a Friday night?”

“If I’m not working, usually at the diner across the road from school.”

“Cool, I’ve been there a few times.”

Example 3

“Hi Simon, what are you doing?”

“Nothing much, just hanging out with Sally.” (In this case you can just use the word hanging without the out and say “Nothing much, just hanging with Sally.”)

And if it’s used as a noun?  It refers to the place where you spend your free time.  

Example 4

“Joey, where are you, guys.”

“We’re at our usual hang out. Come down whenever you want!” (It could mean their favorite café, the gym or even the park).

To Chill Out (verb) Everybody loves to chill out but what does it mean? It simply means to relax. Usually it can be used with or without the word ‘out’ and if you’re speaking with a native English speaker they’ll definitely understand.    

Example 1

“Hey Tommy, what are you guys doing?”

“We’re just chilling (out). Do you want to come round?”

Example 2

“Sue, what did you do in the weekend?”

“Nothing much. We just chilled (out).”

But if someone tells you need to chill out it’s not as positive. It means that they think you’re overreacting to a situation or getting stressed about silly little things.    



Example 3

“I can’t believe that test we just had. I’m sure I’m going to fail.”

“You need to chill out and stop thinking too much. I’m sure you’ll be fine.”

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Booking a Hotel - All You Need to Know!

Here is some useful vocabulary to describe hotel rooms and facilities, and phrases to book a hotel room.





Types of room

double room = room with a double bed (for two people)
twin room = room with two beds
single room = room with one bed (for one person)
suite = more than one room (e.g. bedroom and living room
cot = a bed for a baby

Availability

fully-booked = no rooms available

Other facilities

ensuite bathroom = a bathroom attached to the bedroom
a safe = a box with a key where you put valuables (passport, jewellery, money etc)
a minibar = a small fridge with drinks inside such as coke, water, juice, wine
tea and coffee making facilities = a kettle (to boil water), cups, coffee, tea bags milk, and sugar
(24-hour) room service = meals delivered to your room
laundry / dry cleaning service = your clothes can be washed for you
bar and restaurant = the hotel has a bar and a restaurant for drinks and meals
wifi = internet connection (pronounced wai – fai)
full English breakfast = big breakfast with toast, eggs, bacon, cereal, etc
continental breakfast = small breakfast with croissant, coffee, juice
a wake-up call = when the telephone rings to wake you up



Making the booking
Here are some phrases you can use on the phone to make a booking in English.

I'd like to book a (single / double / twin) room for two nights, please.
I'd like to make a reservation for a (single / double / twin) room for the night of (date), please.
(a reservation = a booking)

Do you have any double rooms left for the weekend?
Do you have any double rooms available this weekend?
(left = available)



How much is… a single room / a double room / a suite?

What time is check-in? (check-in = when you arrive and give your passport information)
What time is check-out? (when you leave and pay)
What time is breakfast?

Are all your rooms ensuite? (= with bathroom)
Is there wifi in the room?
Is there a lift? (life / elevator)

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Telephone English

BUSINESS  ENGLISH  VOCABULARY
Telephone




Useful telephone vocabulary and phrases in English.


Making contact :
  • Hello / Good morning / Good afternoon ...
  • This is John Brown speaking
  • Could I speak to ......... please?
  • I'd like to speak to ..... .....
  • I'm trying to contact ..........
Giving more information:
  • I'm calling from Tokyo / Paris / New York / Sydney ...
  • I'm calling on behalf of Mr. X ...
Taking a call :
  • X speaking.
  • Can I help you?
Asking for a name / information :
  • Who's calling please?
  • Who's speaking?
  • Where are you calling from?
  • Are you sure you have the right number / name?
Asking the caller to wait :
  • Hold the line please.
  • Could you hold on please?
  • Just a moment please.
Connecting :
  • Thank you for holding.
  • The line's free now ... I'll put you through.
  • I'll connect you now  / I'm connecting you now.
Giving negative information :
  • I'm afraid the line's engaged. Could you call back later?
  • I'm afraid he's in a meeting at the moment.
  • I'm sorry. He's out of the office today. /
    He isn't in at the moment.
  • I'm afraid we don't have a Mr./Mrs./Ms/Miss. ... here
  • I'm sorry.  There's nobody here by that name.
  • Sorry.  I think you've dialled the wrong number./
    I'm afraid you've got the wrong number.
Telephone problems :
  • The line is very bad ...  Could you speak up please?
  • Could you repeat that please?
  • I'm afraid I can't hear you.
  • Sorry. I didn't catch that.  Could you say it again please?
Leaving /Taking a message :
  • Can I leave / take a message?
  • Would you like to leave a message?
  • Could you give him/her a message?
  • Could you ask him/her to call me back?
  • Could you tell him/her that I called?
  • Could you give me your name please?
  • Could you spell that please?
  • What's your number please?


Thursday, June 11, 2015

3 Beach Idioms

Summer is arriving! It's time to hit (=go to) the beach! Do you recognise these three beach idioms?

Beach bum/bunny

A young man who is always on the beach is a beach bum. A beach bunny is often used for females.

He's turned into a real beach bum since he moved to California.



Life's a beach

When you are very happy because your life is going well, life's a beach. It has the opposite meaning of the more well-known idiom, life's a bitch which expresses the idea that things are difficult or going badly.

He got engaged and got promoted - life's a beach for him at the moment.



To not be the only pebble on the beach

We use not the only pebble on the beach to state someone is not the most important person in the group. It's often used when someone is sad because a relationship has ended. Plenty of other fish in the sea is also used.

I know you are sad because you miss her, but remember, she's not the only pebble on the beach.

Laura always expects to get her own way. It's time she learned that she's not the only pebble on the beach.


Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Collocation in English

As you learn English, it's very important to develop an understanding of words that are regularly used together. Words that go together are called collocations. Knowing them will make your English sound more natural.

Here are some collocations with the verb take.



Choose the best collocation in these sentences. If you make a mistake, don't worry. Just remember it and don't repeat it.

1) Who was that ___ man you were talking to?
handsome
pretty

2) Drive carefully, the road gets ___ soon.
thin
narrow

3) There are some ___ mountains outside the town.
low
short

4) I work in a ___ building.
tall
long



5) The company is hoping to ___ a profit this year.
make
take

6) They've ___ their decision.
changed
moved

7) ___ a photo of him.
Make
Take

8) What does he ___ for a living?
make
have
do

9) She got a ___ education in London.
well
good

10) Do I have time to take a ___ shower?
quick
fast

The answers 
1 = handsome, 2 = narrow, 3 = low, 4 = tall, 5 = make
6 = changed, 7 = take, 8 = do, 9 = good, 10 = quick

Friday, May 8, 2015

5 Heat Idioms

It's heating up (the weather is getting warmer) here in Spain.




Did you know that to heat up is also used to describe a situation that is becoming intense, or angry:

"The conversation started to heat up so I decided to leave."

Here are five other heat related expressions.

Take the heat

If you can take the heat you can take criticism and handle stressful situations.

"Don't worry, if the project fails and the boss gets angry, I'll take the heat for us."

A dead heat

A dead heat is when there is no single winner - two or more participants tie for first place.

"The horse race finished in a dead heat."

In the heat of the moment

When you do or say something in the heat of the moment, it is because you are too angry or excited to think properly.

"She was so angry that in the heat of the moment she threw her pen at me! She apologised and we laughed about it later."

The heat is on

When the heat is on, a situation is becoming more difficult and busy.

"There are only 5 more days until the election, so the heat is on."

If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.

If the pressure is too much for you, stop. It is used when someone is not good at dealing with stressful situations.

"Being President is a hard job and if you can't stand the heat, you should get out of the kitchen."


Thursday, April 30, 2015

Expressions with Face

Straight Face

When your face shows no emotion, especially when you are trying not to laugh, you keep a straight face.

Don't laugh, try and keep a straight face or she will know you are joking.

His new hairstyle is so awful that I found it hard to keep a straight face.



Lose Face

When you lose face you feel you have lost the respect of others because of something you have done. You feel embarrassed when you lose face.

He didn't understand the lecture but he said he did because he did not want to lose face in front of his classmates.

He lost face when his much younger brother took the test and did better than him.

Long Face

You have a long face when you look sad.

What's happened to James? He has a long face this morning.

"Why the long face?" "I had some bad news."

Egg on your face

You have egg on your face when you get caught doing something wrong. It's an embarrassing situation.

The President had egg on his face after journalists found out he was lying.

The company has egg on its face after its new product turned out to be faulty.



Face it

You face it when you accept the truth, usually about something unpleasant.

Face it, unless we start making a profit soon we will go bankrupt.

I have to face up to the fact that I'm getting too old for nightclubs.

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

Today is April 22nd - Earth Day

Today's post celebrates Earth Day. Read the text and then do the short comprehension activity. Let's save the planet!




What do people do?
The April 22 Earth Day is usually celebrated with outdoor performances, where individuals or groups perform acts of service to earth. Typical ways of observing Earth Day include planting trees, picking up roadside trash, conducting various programs for recycling and conservation, using recyclable containers for snacks and lunches. Some people are encouraged to sign petitions to governments, calling for stronger or immediate action to stop global warming and to reverse environmental destruction.

Public Life
Earth Day is not a public holiday and public life, with regard to transport schedules and opening hours for schools and businesses, is not affected.

Background
The April 22nd Earth Day, founded by Senator Gaylord Nelson, was first organized in 1970 to promote ecology and respect for life on the planet as well as to encourage awareness of the growing problems of air, water and soil pollution.

Symbols
Symbols used by people to describe Earth Day include: an image or drawing of planet earth; a tree, a flower or leaves depicting growth; or the recycling symbol. Colours used for Earth Day include natural colours such as green, brown or blue.



The “Earth Flag”, which was designed by John McConnell, has been described as a “flag for all people”. It features a two-sided dye printed image of the Earth from space on a dark blue field, made from recyclable, weather-resistant polyester.

Activity - Decide whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE


  1. A lot of activities take place outside
  2. Some people petition their government about ecological problems
  3. The celebration of Earth Day began in the 1960s
  4. The recycling symbol is not the only image used for Earth Day
  5. The "Earth Flag" is made out of blue cotton
The answers
  1. True
  2. True
  3. False. It began in 1970
  4. True. 
  5. False. It is made of recyclable weather-resistant polyester

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Silent Letters in English

In English some words have silent letters. This means that how a word is pronounced and how it is spelt is different. We write the silent letter when we spell the word, but it is not heard when we speak.



Here are some examples. The red letter in each word is silent.

Silent B

The lift is broken, we'll have to climb the stairs.

A baby sheep is called a lamb.

Silent C

There's a strong scent of flowers in the garden.

The final scene in the movie was exciting.

Silent D

My English lesson is on Wednesday.

I had a sandwich for lunch.

Silent G

I've never been to a foreign country.

The dog gnawed on a big bone.

Silent H

You can hear your echo when you shout in the cave.

I can only play a few chords on the guitar.

Silent K

I don't know what to do next.

I hurt my knee playing football.

Silent N

Autumn is my favourite season.

My brother is a journalist, he writes a weekly column in the local newspaper.



Silent P

She's studying psychology in university.

Make sure you get a receipt when you buy your new shoes.

Silent T

Please listen to what I tell you.

We applied for a mortgage so we can buy a new home.

Silent U

Would you like a biscuit with your coffee?

Guess who I saw yesterday?

Silent W

I'll wrap her birthday presents tonight.

We were looking for you in the wrong room.

Friday, April 10, 2015

Feeling happy? Great! Learn some new expressions to tell the world!

How are you feeling today? I hope you are in a good mood. Here are seven idioms we use to show we are happy.

On cloud nine
Extremely happy when something wonderful happens.
She's been on cloud nine since she found out she is pregnant.

Like a dog with two tails
To look and be very happy.
Was he pleased? He was like a dog with two tails.

Full of the joys of spring
When you are energetic, cheerful and happy.
James must have had some good news, he's full of the joys of spring today.



To be happy as Larry
When you are as happy as Larry, you are, of course, very happy. But who is Larry? No one is certain but it is believed that 'Larry' refers to an Australian boxer called Larry Foley (1878 - 1917) who after receiving a large payment after winning a fight was described in a newspaper as being 'happy'. Somehow this description stuck and is now used all these years later.
My daughter was as happy as Larry with her birthday present.

On top of the world
You are on top of the world when you feel wonderful.
I've been feeling on top of the world since I started doing yoga every morning.

Over the moon
This idiom isn't used so much these days because it is considered a cliché (an overused, unoriginal expression), but it means to be delighted.
The team captain said he was over the moon with their win.



In seventh heaven
Bliss; to be so happy it feels like you are in heaven.
I was in seventh heaven when I landed my dream job.

Thursday, April 2, 2015

In a dog eat dog world...it's important to speak English!

How many of you know the English expression raining cats and dogs, as in, 'I'm not going outside, it's raining cats and dogs'?
It means, and no one seems to know why, raining very heavily. The other strange thing to notice about this expression is the amount of English learners who know it. Perhaps it's because it's a fun, simple and easy phrase to remember?
As we recently posted some cat expressions, tooday we introduce you to some other expressions featuring the animal that makes up half that idiom - the dog.
Here are some well-known dog expressions.

 Dog-tired

Very tired.

He was dog-tired after working a double-shift.

She's said all nurses are dog-tired by the end of the day. It really is a tough job.

Dog-eat-dog

When a situation is dog-eat-dog, it's very competitive in a cruel and selfish way.

Working on Wall Street is dog-eat-dog.

Banking is a dog-eat-dog industry.

Let sleeping dogs lie

You let sleeping dogs lie when you choose to not talk about things which have caused problems in the past. It's also used to not try to change a situation because it might cause problems.

He never talks about his ex-wife and we never ask about her, it's better to let sleeping dogs lie.

Can we just let sleeping dogs lie? I don't want to discuss the matter any further?



Work like a dog

To work very hard.

She worked like a dog all day to finish the report before the deadline.

I worked like a dog all weekend painting my parents' house.

to be like a dog with a bone

This, mostly British expression, means to refuse to stop talking or thinking about something. To not give up.

When it comes to talking about politics, he's like a dog with a bone.

Don't get into a discussion with her about environmental issues - she's like a dog with a bone.



to be like a dog with two tails

To be very happy.

He was like a dog with two tails when his team won.

She'll be like a dog with two tails when she finds she's been promoted.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Some expressions for all you cool cats who love English!

There are many idiomatic expressions which take cats as their inspiration. Let's study a few today!

Fat cat
A negative description of a rich and powerful person.
Those fat cats in government don't care about the poor.

Cat got your tongue?
Has the cat got your tongue? is an expression we say to people when we want them to speak but they don’t answer us.
You’re very quiet Jenny. What's the matter, has the cat got your tongue?

Curiosity killed the cat
Basically, being too curious can get you into trouble. It's used to warm someone they are asking too many questions.
Simon: Stop asking questions about my private life! Curiosity killed the cat so mind your own business!

Not a cat in hell's chance
When something or someone has no chance of being successful, it doesn't have a cat in hell's chance.
We haven't got a cat in hell's chance of getting there before 5:30 with this traffic.

Look like something the cat dragged in
When someone looks very untidy and messy, they look like something the cat dragged in.
Go and shower and get changed before your granny gets here. You look like something the cat dragged in!

Let the cat out of the bag
When you accidentally tell someone a secret, the cat is out of the bag.
I tried to keep John’s surprise party a secret from him but Susan let the cat out the bag when he asked her what the cake was for!

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Watch the skies...on March 20th

Solar eclipse, Supermoon and Spring Equinox: Friday  sees three rare celestial events

The solar eclipse refers to a phenomenon where the sun and moon line up, so that the latter obscures the former. And while it won’t be affected by the two other events, it is rare that the three events happen even individually. 
As the eclipse plunges the UK and other places into darkness this Friday, two other rare if less spectacular celestial events will be taking place, too: a Supermoon and the Spring equinox.




A Supermoon, or perigee moon, happens when the full or new moon does its closest fly-by of the 
Earth, making it look bigger than it normally does. And the spring equinox refers to the time of the year when the day and night are of equal duration, mid-way between the longest and shortest days. Most of the time, there are between three and six Supermoons a year. There are set to be six in 2015, two of which have already happened. The next will take place on March 20th, the day of the eclipse, and the others will come in August, September and October.

Eclipses can only happen at new moon, when the moon appears is entirely in shadow. And the 
spectacular Supermoon images that are often spotted can only happen when the moon is full, since it can only be seen then.

As a result, only the last three Supermoons of this year will be visible — because the moon is new 
rather than full on March 20, it won’t be seen. But it will be gliding past us closer than ever, and its shadow will be visible as it blocks out the sun on Friday morning.

The equinox will also happen on March 20. While it won’t have any discernable, direct impact on how the solar eclipse looks, it will contribute to a rare collision of three unusual celestial events.




On March 20, the Earth’s axis will be perpindecular to the sun’s rays — which only happens twice a 
year, at the two equinoxes. After that, it will start tipping over, making the days longer in the northern hemisphere.As such, the equinox has long been celebrated as a time of beginning and renewal, by a number of historic cultures, and is linked to Easter and Passover.

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Spicy Chicken Nuggets

Are you having a party? Do you want something different to serve your guests? Why not try some of these nuggets? They are quick and easy to make, and after you eat one you will not be able to stop all night. Happy dipping! 


The chicken nugget, like the hamburger, has a bad reputation because of its association with fast food. But when it is freshly made (recién hecho) using different herbs and seasonings,(condimentos) it makes a wonderful snack, perfect for parties. You can vary the herbs to create various flavours,(sabores) increasing the amount of chilli if you want to make them spicier. Children especially will love dipping them into mayonnaise. You can also dip them into mustard (mostaza) or a mixture of mustard and honey. 

      


Ingredients for 36 nuggets

2 lbs boneless (sin hueso) chicken breasts,(pechugas de pollo) cut into 1-inch pieces

3 eggs, beaten (batidos)

½ c plain dry breadcrumbs (pan rallado)
1½ tsp chilli powder (en polvo)

1 tsp onion powder
1 tsp ground cumin (comido molido)
1 tsp thyme leaves (hojas de tomillo)
¼ tsp paprika

a pinch (pizca) of salt
oil for frying

Note on British measures:
lb = 1 pound = 453g
tsp = 1 teaspoon(X) = 5ml 

c = 1 cup = 240ml 

Instructions
Firstly, cut the chicken breasts into pieces. Beat the eggs and dip the chicken pieces into the mixture. Next, mix the breadcrumbs, chilli powder, onion powder, cumin, thyme, paprika and salt in a bowl. Dip the chicken in the breadcrumb mixture, coating (cubriendo) well. Heat (calienta) the oil in a large frying pan and fry the chicken on a medium heat,(a fuego medio) turning once, until done. Drain (escurre) on kitchen roll.(en papel de cocina) Serve warm with mayonnaise and with assorted mustards.(mostazas variadas)

Saturday, March 7, 2015

The Irregular Past Forms .(3)


Y finalmente revisamos el último grupo. El de los verbos con pasado y participio distintos. No olvides comprobar tus conocimientos completando la actividad final.


En esta tercera categoría aparecen algunos de los verbos que los hablantes utilizan con mayor categoría. El más importante, sin duda, es el verbo to be, que tiene la siguiente forma.

be
was/were
been
ser, estar

Habrás notado que el verbo to be es el único que tiene dos formas de pasado. Recuerda que, a diferencia de todos los demás verbos ingleses, que usan la misma forma pasada para todas la personas gramaticales (desde yo hasta ellos) -- y en eso el pasado del Inglés es mucho más fácil que el del español -- el verbo to be tiene un mínimo de conjugación. Compara los dos verbos siguientes y comprueba que el pasado del verbo to do es siempre igual, independientemente de la persona que va delante del verbo, como la mayoría de los verbos. Sin embargo, el verbo to be cambia su forma de pasado según quién es el sujeto de la frase.

Pasado del to be (excepcional)
Pasado del verbo to do (norma general)
was (fui, era, estuve o estaba)
You were (fuiste, eras, estuviste o estabas)
He/she/it was (fue, era…)
We were (fuimos, éramos…)
You were (fuisteis, erais…)
They were (fueron, eran…)
did (hice o hacía)
You did (hiciste o hacías)
He/she/it did (hizo o hacía)
We did (hicimos o hacíamos)
You did (hicisteis o hacíais)
They did (hicieron o hacían)

Además del to be, te presentamos aquí otros verbos muy usuales que hay que aprender pronto y que no son fáciles de incluir dentro de ninguna categoría.
do
did
done
hacer
go
went
gone
ir
eat
ate
eaten
comer
write
wrote
written
escribir
see
saw
seen
ver

Ahora pasaremos a examinar algunos de los modelos que te ayudarán a aprender los verbos de esta tercera categoría. El primer grupo es el de los que cambian la vocal del infinitivo, normalmente una –i, por una –a en el pasado y una –u en el participio. Completa la lista:
begin
began
begun
empezar
swim
swam
swum
nadar
sing


cantar
run

run
correr
drink
drank

beber

Otro grupo es el que ejemplificamos a continuación, donde la vocal del infinitivo se convierte en -o- en el pasado y se le añade una -e al final, y donde el participio se forma añadiendo una –n al final de la forma de pasado. Completa la lista según los modelos:
wake
woke
woken
despertar
steal
stole
stolen
robar
speak
spoke

hablar
break

broken
romper
choose
chose

escoger



Y un último grupo serían aquellos cuyos pasados acaban en –ew y sus participios


en –own. Examina la lista y completa los ejemplos que faltan.

know
knew
known
saber, conocer
grow


crecer
throw


tirar
fly
flew

volar
blow

blown
soplar



Hasta aquí los diferentes modelos de formación de verbos irregulares. Si estudias tú mismo la lista, verás que podrían encontrarse algunos más, aunque algunos serían en realidad modelos con tan sólo un número muy pequeño de casos. Lo que aquí pretendíamos no era tanto clasificar en modelos todos los verbos irregulares cuanto hacerte notar que, a la hora de aprenderlos, el análisis cuenta tanto como la memoria. Por muy difíciles que puedan parecer, al final las formas de hacer pasados y participios son muchas menos de las que parecen, si eres capaz de ir comparándolas y encontrar las muchas similitudes entre unos verbos y otros.


Para acabar, unas últimas advertencias. La primera: existe algún verbo que te puede despistar porque, a pesar de que su pasado se hace de manera regular, con –ed, el participio es irregular. El más conocido es show/showed/shown (mostrar), aunque hay alguno más.






hay algunos verbos que tienen un pasado y participio irregulares en Inglés británico pero que se han regularizado en Inglés americano y, por lo tanto, forman el pasado y el participio con –ed. Los que encontrarás con más frecuencia son dream (soñar) y learn (aprender). Compara sus formas respectivas en cada uno de los dos dialectos:



Infinitivo
British English
American English
Pasado
Participio
Pasado
Participio
dream
dreamt
dreamt
dreamed
dreamed
learn
learnt
learnt
learned
learned

Por último, ten presente que lo normal es que, si conoces un verbo, conozcas también el pasado y el participio de los verbos que se componen a partir de él. Observa estos dos últimos ejemplos:

come
came
come
venir
become
became
become
llegar a ser
give
gave
given
dar
forgive
forgave
forgiven
perdonar

Ahora, utiliza los verbos de las listas que acabas de estudiar para rellenar los espacios del siguiente texto con los pasados (y un participio) de los verbos entre paréntesis.


I (1)_________ (go) to bed and (2)_________ (sleep) for a few hours. Next morning, I (3)_________ (have) a quick shower and carefully (4)_________ (cut) my moustache. It (5)_________ (be) too long, and I have always liked to wear it short. I counted my money and (6)_________ (put) twenty pounds my wallet. I (7)________ (be) ready to go out when I (8) _________ (hear) the milkman at the door. “Sorry, no milk today!” I shouted at him. “Alright, sir,” his reply (9) ________ (come) to me through the door, followed by a loud noise of breaking bottles and a terrifying scream: “Ahhhh!” No milk today, and tomorrow, either, I presumed. The milkman had (10)_________ (break) his leg.

Answer key:


1.went  2.slept  3.had  4.cut  5.was  6.put  7.was  8.heard  9.came 10.broken